• Researcher Profile

    Geoffrey Shapiro, MD, PhD

    Director, Early Drug Development Center
    Clinical Director, Center for DNA Damage and Repair
    Senior Physician

    Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School


    Early Drug Development Center

    Office phone: 617-632-4942
    Fax: 617-632-1977
    Email: geoffrey_shapiro@dfci.harvard.edu

    Preferred contact method: office phone

    View Physician Profile

    Research Departments

    Medical Oncology/Molecular and Cellular

    Medical Oncology/Solid Tumor Oncology


    Developmental therapeutics, Phase 1 clinical trials, Solid tumors

    Area of Research

    Cell-Cycle-Related Targets for Antitumor Drug Development

    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
    450 Brookline Avenue
    Mayer 446
    Boston, MA 02215


    Dr. Shapiro received his PhD in 1987 and his MD in 1988 from Cornell University, followed by postgraduate training in internal medicine at Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, where he served as chief medical resident.

    He completed a fellowship in medical oncology at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, during which he investigated the role of cell-cycle-related proteins in lung cancer. He joined the Dana-Farber faculty in 1994.


    Cell-Cycle-Related Targets for Antitumor Drug Development

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) are critical regulators of cell cycle progression and RNA transcription. A variety of genetic and epigenetic events cause universal overactivity of the cdks in human cancer, and their inhibition frequently leads to cell cycle arrest, depletion of transcripts with short half-lives, and apoptosis. Using siRNA technology, we have recently shown that depletion of both cell cycle and transcriptional cdk activities induces apoptosis in transformed cells. A primary focus of our laboratory is the characterization of cdk inhibitor drugs that mimic these effects.

    We are investigating both pan-cdk inhibitors, including flavopiridol, as well as inhibitors more selective for cdks 1 and 2. These compounds induce p53-independent apoptosis in transformed cells and modulate phosphorylation of Rb, p27(Kip1) and E2F-1. We are designing pharmacodynamic assays to assess their biologic effects in tumors as early-phase trials begin.

    In addition, we have found that cdk inhibition is synergistic with DNA damage in inducing cancer cell death. Cdk inhibition following cell-cycle disruption by chemotherapy drugs may alter the activity of the transcription factor E2F-1, thereby activating apoptosis pathways. Clinical trials exploiting this biology are under way, including a combination of gemcitabine and flavopiridol.

    We have also investigated the geldanamaycins, small-molecule inhibitors of hsp90, a cellular chaperone required for the proper folding of multiple kinases, including cdk4. We have demonstrated the depletion of cdk4 in lung cancer cell lines treated with geldanamycins, an effect that induces retinoblastoma-dependent G1 arrest. During the course of this work, we discovered that lung cancer cell lines harboring kinase domain mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were the most sensitive to hsp90 inhibition, and we have defined mutant EGFR as a novel hsp90 client protein that is rapidly depleted following geldanamycin treatment. Hsp90 inhibition may represent a promising strategy for EGFR mutant lung cancers that have acquired resistance to standard tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Another active area of investigation is in regulation of Aurora kinases, mitotic kinases that are frequently dysregulated in cancer. We have shown that the Aurora kinase inhibitor VX-680 induces endoreduplication and eventual cell death in cancer cells. This effect is markedly enhanced in cells with a compromised p53-p21-dependent post-mitotic checkpoint. Transformed cells lacking the post-mitotic checkpoint are most likely to die in response to VX-680, while cells with intact checkpoint function are more likely to arrest. This work represents a first step toward defining tumors that are more likely to respond to Aurora kinase inhibition.

    Select Publications

    • Shapiro GI. Cyclin-dependent kinase pathways as targets for cancer treatment. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24:1770-83.
    • Cai D, Byth KF, Shapiro GI. AZ703, an idizao[1,2-a]pyridine inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2, induces E2F-1-dependent apoptosis enhanced by depletion of cyclin-dependent kinase 9. Cancer Res 2006; 66:435-44.
    • Cai D, Latham VM Jr, Xhang X, and Shapiro GI. Combined depletion of cell cycle and transcriptional cyclin-dependent kinase activities induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2006; 66:9270-80.
    • Shimamura T, Li D, Ji H, Haringsma HJ, Liniker E, Borgman CL, Lowell AM, McNamara K, Perera SA, Zaghlul S, Thomas RK, Greulich H, Kobayashi S, Chirieac LR, Padera RF, Kubo S, Takahashi M, Tenen DG, Meyerson M, Wong KK and Shapiro GI. Hsp90 inhibition suppresses mutant EGFR-T790M signaling and overcomes kinase inhibitor resistance. Cancer Res. 2008; 5827-38.
    • Johnson N, Cai D, Kennedy RD, Pathania S, Parvin J.D, DAndrea AD and Shapiro GI. CDK1 participates in BRCA1-dependent S phase checkpont control in response to DNA damage. Molecular Cell. 2009 Aug 14;35(3):327-39.
    • Boss DS, Schwartz GK, Middleton MR, Amakye DD, Swaisland H, Midgley RS, Ranson M, DAnson S, Calvert H, Plummer R, Morris C, Carvajal RD, Chirieac LR, Schellens JH, Shapiro GI. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the oral cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AZD5438 when administered at intermittent and continuous dosing schedules in patients with advanced solid tumors. Ann Oncol 2009; in press.
    • Li D, Shimamura T, Ji H, Chen L, Haringsma HJ, McNamara K, Liang MC, Perera SA, Zaghlul S, Borgman CL, Kubo S, Takahashi M, Sun Y, Chirieac LR, Padera RF, Lindeman NI, Janne PA, Thomas RK, Meyerson ML, Eck MJ, Engelman JA, Shapiro GI, Wong KK. Bronchial and Peripheral Murine Lung Carcinomas Induced by T790M-L858R Mutant EGFR Respond to HKI-272 and Rapamycin Combination Therapy. Cancer Cell. 2007;12:81-93.


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    • Cornell, Liam, PhD
    • Haines, Eric, PhD
    • Mani, Aparna, MD, PhD
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